August 19, 1878
Mother, Maria Quezon, died of tuberculosis in 1893,
after Manuel had graduated with a degree of Bachelor of
Arts, summa cum laude, at San Juan de Letran College
Father, Lucio Quezon was robbed and murdered by bandits
on his way home to Baler before the siege of Manila
news of the outbreak of hostilities between the
Americans and the Filipinos broke out on February 4,
1898, MLQ immediately joined the revolutionary army of
Gen. Emilio Aguinaldo.
-- stationed in Cabanatuan when the Aguinaldo Government
-- asked to be sent out to the field; was sent to Gen.
Mascardo in Porac,
-- promoted to major by Col. Leysen and put in command
Liraz's battalion when the later was hit by a shrapnel
-- plot to kill him was foiled
-- upon instructions of Gen. Mascardo, visited Aguinaldo
-- confined in a room at Intramuros, released, had a
Passed the bar, fourth place in 1903, practiced as an
assistant attorney in the Ortigas law office, moved his
own practice to Tayabas in October 1903.
Six months as Fiscal of Mindoro at P3,000/year; then
promoted to Tayabas, where he successfully prosecuted
Francisco J. Berry for estafa.
In 1906, was elected Governor of Tayabas.
With Osmeña and Sandiko, founded the Partido
Independista Immediata, which merged with the Union
Nacionalista to become the Partido Nacionalista, which
advocated immediate independence.
Elected to the First National Assembly on July 30, 1907;
floor leader and chairman of the committee on
In 1909, opposed the Payne-Aldrich bill which reflected
America's treatment of the Philippines as a
"backward helpless country that was to be aided and
fattened in spite of itself. It had become a profitable
market for American goods, and the aspiration of its
people to nationhood could be dismissed as unwise."
The US Congress passed the bill nonetheless.
MLQ was elected Resident Commissioner of the Philippines
to the US. Arrived in Washington on December 24, 1909.
On May 10, 1920, delivered his maiden speech on the
floor of the US Congress, with some memorable lines:
-- "Despite it all, we still want
-- " Moreover, large investments of American
capital in the Philippines
will result in the permanent retention of the
Philippines by the US."
-- "If the pre-ordained fate of my country is
either to be subject people
but rich, or free but poor, I am unqualifiedly for the
Called the "Patrick Henry of the Philippines"
August 16, 1916, on the Jones-Hitchcock bill (1st
introduced in 1914), providing for a 24-seat elective
Philippine Senate, with the right to confirm
appointments made by the Governor-General, Quezon said:
"Heretofore we have been the least and the last
factor in Philippine affairs. Heretofore we shall be the
first and more important factor. Heretofore things were
done by the Philippine Government not only without the
consent but on many occasions against the strong
opposition of the Filipino people. Hereafter nothing
will be done without our consent, much less in defiance
of our opposition. This bill is a long and very decisive
step toward the complete emancipation of the Filipino
people." Bill was passed by the US Congress on
August 29, 1916 and signed by Pres. Wilson.
Elected Senator of the 5th Senatorial District and
President of the Philippine Senate. Denounced the
electoral frauds in the Bicol region: "A thousand
times better that the sixth district should not be
represented than that it be represented by men placed
upon their seats by the black hands of detestable
Opposed Governor Harrison's move to create new positions
in the Philippine Constabulary: "It is the
Legislature alone that has the power to create
December 9, 1918: 1st Independence Mission to the US.
Civil marriage to Aurora in Hong Kong, and church
wedding on December 17, 1918 at Catholic Cathedral in
Hong Kong. Through the years, had three children:
Zenaida, Maria Aurora and Manuel, Jr.
Opposed the coastwise shipping bill, requiring all trade
between America and the Philippines to be made
exclusively in American ships: against the policy of
independence, for it would increase Philippine economic
dependence on US, would curtail the authority already
given to the people, would be an indirect tax on the
people without the consent of the Philippine
1920: Republican candidate Warren Harding was elected US
February 17, 1922: formed the Partido Nationalista
Colectivista. "My loyalty to my party ends where my
loyalty to my country begins." June 6, 1922
elections: Quezon had majority in the Senate, but House
had no Speaker
Fell ill with tuberculosis; confined at Pottinger
Sanatorium in Monrovia. California.
December 1931: OsRox Mission supported the Hare Hawes
Cutting Law; MLQ opposed it, as it called for retention
of American military bases (okay to naval bases). HHC
became law on January 17, 1933, but MLQ stood against it
and swayed the Philippine Legislature and majority of
Provincial Governors onto his side. Had Roxas deposed as
House Speaker and Osmeña as Senate President
November 19, 1933, Quezon headed another mission to the
US. On March 24, 1934, the Tydings-McDuffie Law was
July 10, 1934 Con-Con elections; Recto as President.
February 8, 1935, Constitution was approved 177:1. May
14, 1935, ratification of the Constitution by the
1st President of the Commonwealth after September 17,
1935 elections. Inauguration of Government on November
15, 1935. "We shall build a government that will be
just, honest, efficient and strong, so that the
foundations of the coming Republic may be firm and
enduring - a government, indeed, that must satisfy not
only the passing needs of the hour but also the exacting
demands of the future."
Passed the 1st minimum wage law in 1937.
November 11, 1941, reelected as President.
June 14, 1942, on behalf of the Philippines signed the
UN Declaration, and the Philippine flag was raised
alongside the flags of other nations. Osmeña: Under the
leadership of President Quezon, the government of the
Commonwealth functioned in Washington not only with the
recognition of the US but of the other nations with
which American is allied in this war. The Commonwealth,
in a word, acquired an advanced political status
because, anticipating the promised recognition of our
independence, the American government has taken the
steps to invest us with international personality. We
were admitted to membership in the United Nations, and
we were accorded a seat in the Pacific War Council.
MLQ secured US people's interest in the
Died 10:05 a.m., August 1, 1944, at Saranac Lake, NY, in
the Adirondack mountains.
Gen. MacArthur said of Quezon: "Of all men of all
time, none more truly merited the appellation of
patriot-statesman. Few could, as he, replace the uniform
of soldier with the mantle of statecraft, yet maintain
with voice and pen in undiminished vigor the crusading
fight in the self-same cause for which he had fought by
the violence of arms."
"Father of the Philippine Republic."
EPITAPH on MLQ Tomb
Statesman and Patriot,
Lover of Freedom,
Advocate of Social Justice,
Beloved of His People